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Xenbase Image ID: 140028

Figure 2. TGF-b Signaling Is Activated in GRP Cells to Control Cilia Length (A) N1MO or Xnr1MO/DerMO blocks Smad2 phosphorylation at early neurula stages 13/14. Cilia were stained by an anti-acetylated a-tubulin antibody (green), and phosphorylated Smad2 was detected by an anti-phospho-Smad2 antibody (red). Examples of a short cilium and a P-Smad2 signal are indicated by a white arrowhead and a red arrowhead, respectively. Membrane GFP (memGFP) RNA was co-injected as a lineage tracer and to indicate the cell membrane. The scale bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior; p, posterior. (B) Quantification of P-Smad2 in dorsal posterior explants. Immunoblotting was performed with protein extracts from dorsal posterior explants of Notch1 morphants or nodal1/gdf3 double morphants. (C) Shortened cilia and rescued cilia at the GRP. DN-S2 RNA (4 ng) and/or S2 RNA (1 ng) were injected. The scale bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior; p, posterior. (D) Average length of cilia from (C). Statistical analyses were carried out in Excel using SEM and Student’s t test to calculate p values (*p % 0.05, **p % 0.005, ***p % 0.0005, ****p % 0.00005; n.s., not significant).

Image published in: Tözser J et al. (2015)

Copyright © 2015. Image reproduced with permission of the publisher and the copyright holder. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

smad2.L XSmad2, smad-2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 17gastrocoel roof plate
ciliated cell
tuba4b.L tuba4, alpha tubulin, alpha-tubulin, tuba4aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 17gastrocoel roof plate
ciliated cell

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