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Xenbase Image ID: 140028

Figure 2. TGF-b Signaling Is Activated in GRP Cells to Control Cilia Length (A) N1MO or Xnr1MO/DerMO blocks Smad2 phosphorylation at early neurula stages 13/14. Cilia were stained by an anti-acetylated a-tubulin antibody (green), and phosphorylated Smad2 was detected by an anti-phospho-Smad2 antibody (red). Examples of a short cilium and a P-Smad2 signal are indicated by a white arrowhead and a red arrowhead, respectively. Membrane GFP (memGFP) RNA was co-injected as a lineage tracer and to indicate the cell membrane. The scale bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior; p, posterior. (B) Quantification of P-Smad2 in dorsal posterior explants. Immunoblotting was performed with protein extracts from dorsal posterior explants of Notch1 morphants or nodal1/gdf3 double morphants. (C) Shortened cilia and rescued cilia at the GRP. DN-S2 RNA (4 ng) and/or S2 RNA (1 ng) were injected. The scale bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior; p, posterior. (D) Average length of cilia from (C). Statistical analyses were carried out in Excel using SEM and Student’s t test to calculate p values (*p % 0.05, **p % 0.005, ***p % 0.0005, ****p % 0.00005; n.s., not significant).

Image published in: Tözser J et al. (2015)

Copyright © 2015. Image reproduced on Xenbase with permission of the publisher and the copyright holder. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

smad2.L XSmad2, smad-2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 17gastrocoel roof plate
ciliated cell
tuba4b.L tuba4, alpha tubulin, alpha-tubulin, tuba4aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 17gastrocoel roof plate
ciliated cell

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