Xenbase Image ID: 140028
Figure 2. TGF-b Signaling Is Activated in
GRP Cells to Control Cilia Length
(A) N1MO or Xnr1MO/DerMO blocks Smad2
phosphorylation at early neurula stages 13/14.
Cilia were stained by an anti-acetylated a-tubulin
antibody (green), and phosphorylated Smad2 was
detected by an anti-phospho-Smad2 antibody
(red). Examples of a short cilium and a P-Smad2
signal are indicated by a white arrowhead and
a red arrowhead, respectively. Membrane GFP
(memGFP) RNA was co-injected as a lineage
tracer and to indicate the cell membrane. The scale
bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior; p, posterior.
(B) Quantification of P-Smad2 in dorsal posterior
explants. Immunoblotting was performed with
protein extracts from dorsal posterior explants of
Notch1 morphants or nodal1/gdf3 double morphants.
(C) Shortened cilia and rescued cilia at the GRP.
DN-S2 RNA (4 ng) and/or S2 RNA (1 ng) were injected.
The scale bar represents 20 mm. a, anterior;
(D) Average length of cilia from (C).
Statistical analyses were carried out in Excel using
SEM and Student’s t test to calculate p values
(*p % 0.05, **p % 0.005, ***p % 0.0005, ****p %
0.00005; n.s., not significant).
Image published in: Tözser J et al. (2015)
Copyright © 2015. Image reproduced on Xenbase with permission of the publisher and the copyright holder. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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