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Fig. 1. Fzd3 loss of function results in an abnormal eye development. A. Spatial expression pattern of fzd3. Fzd3 transcripts are found in the neural tube (black arrowheads), migrating neural crest cells (white arrows) and the developing eye (white arrowheads) at indicated stages. B. Loss of Fzd3 led to smaller and deformed eyes on the injected side (white arrows) in comparison to the un-injected or Control MO injected side. Furthermore, Fzd3 inhibition resulted in disturbed retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE, red arrows). Representative embryos are shown. Scale bar (sections): 100 µm. C. Quantitative representation of the data shown in B. Note, that also the data from Fig. 5B are incorporated into the statistics. D. Detailed views of Fzd3 MO and Control MO injected eyes. Dashed red lines indicate measured eye areas. Red lines indicate the eye fissure angle (°fis.) measured. Quantitative representations of eye area and eye fissure angle (°fis.) measurements are given. E. Cross sections of Fzd3-depleted embryos after WMISH using marker genes against different retinal cell types. Loss of Fzd3 led to disorganized retinal cell layers including an invagination of the photoreceptor layer into inner retina layers (black arrows) and the formation of rosette-like structures by ectopic photoreceptor cells (red arrowheads). The ratios of Fzd3 MO injected embryos showing retinal lamination defects versus all investigated embryos are indicated. Scale bar: 100 µm. F. Lens specific markers celf1 and cryba1 are shown by WMISH. Marker gene expression was unaffected upon Fzd3 depletion although some lenses were smaller (the ratios of Fzd3 MO injected embryos showing smaller lenses versus all investigated embryos are indicated). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: GCL, ganglion cell layer; INL, inner nuclear cell layer; n, number of independent experiments; N, total number of analyzed embryos; ONL, outer nuclear cell layer; st, stage. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean (s.e.m.). **** p≤0.0001. p values were calculated by non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum test.

Image published in: Seigfried FA et al. (2017)

Copyright © 2017. Image reproduced with permission of the Publisher, Elsevier B. V.

GeneSynonymsSpeciesStage(s)Tissue
fzd3.LFz-3, Xfz3, frizzled-3, frizzled 3, frizzled3, fz3, frz3, frz-3X.laevisThroughout NF stage 20neuroectoderm
neural plate
neural tube
migratory neural crest cell
optic vesicle
fzd3.LFz-3, Xfz3, frizzled-3, frizzled 3, frizzled3, fz3, frz3, frz-3X.laevisThroughout NF stage 23neuroectoderm
neural tube
migratory neural crest cell
optic vesicle
fzd3.LFz-3, Xfz3, frizzled-3, frizzled 3, frizzled3, fz3, frz3, frz-3X.laevisThroughout NF stage 28head
brain
eye
pharyngeal region
central nervous system
spinal cord
forebrain
midbrain
hindbrain
intermediate mesoderm
otic vesicle
arr3.LX.laevisThroughout NF stage 42retina
eye photoreceptor cell
eye
photoreceptor layer
rho.Lrp4, opn2, xrho, rhodopsin, rh1X.laevisThroughout NF stage 42retina
eye photoreceptor cell
eye
photoreceptor layer
vsx1.LXvsx1, ktcn, ppcd, rinx, ppdX.laevisThroughout NF stage 42retina
bipolar neuron
eye
prox1.LProx 1, prospero-related homeobox 1, prospero, xprox1, prospero homeobox protein 1X.laevisThroughout NF stage 42horizontal cell
retina
eye
pax6.LXLPAX6, xpax6, pax-6, an2, mgda, wagr, pax6-a, pax6-bX.laevisThroughout NF stage 42retina
amacrine cell
retinal ganglion cell
eye
retinal ganglion cell layer
pou4f1.Lbrn3a, rdc-1, oct-t1, Brn3.0, POU class IV homeobox 1X.laevisThroughout NF stage 42retina
retinal ganglion cell
eye
retinal ganglion cell layer
celf1.Leden-bp, embryo deadenylation element binding protein, edenbp, cug-bp, cug-bp1, cugbp, nab50, brunol2, cugbp1, celf1-a, celf1-bX.laevisThroughout NF stage 42eye
lens
cryba1.Lcryb1X.laevisThroughout NF stage 42eye
lens

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