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Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol June 1, 2000; 126 (2): 199-211.

Dual functions of thyroid hormone receptors during Xenopus development.

Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a causative role in anuran metamorphosis. This effect is presumed to be manifested through the regulation of gene expression by TH receptors (TRs). TRs can act as both activators and repressors of a TH-inducible gene depending upon the presence and absence of TH, respectively. We have been investigating the roles of TRs during Xenopus laevis development, including premetamorphic and metamorphosing stages. In this review, we summarize some of the studies on the TRs by others and us. These studies reveal that TRs have dual functions in frog development as reflected in the following two aspects. First, TRs function initially as repressors of TH-inducible genes in premetamorphic tadpoles to prevent precocious metamorphosis, thus ensuring a proper period of tadpole growth, and later as activators of these genes to activate the metamorphic process. Second, TRs can promote both cell proliferation and apoptosis during metamorphosis, depending upon the cell type in which they are expressed.

PubMed ID: 10874167
Article link: Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol