Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta negatively regulates both DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of heat shock factor 1.
Stress activation of heat shock factor (HSF1) involves the conversion of repressed monomers to DNA-binding homotrimers with increased transcriptional capacity and results in transcriptional up-regulation of the heat shock protein (hsp) gene family. Cells tightly control the activity of HSF1 through interactions with hsp90 chaperone complexes and through integration into a number of different signaling cascades. A number of studies have shown that HSF1 transcriptional activity is negatively regulated by constitutive phosphorylation in the regulatory domain by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) isoforms alpha/beta. However, previous studies have not examined the ability of GSK3 to regulate the DNA-binding activity of native HSF1 in vivo under heat shock conditions. Here we show that GSK3beta inhibits both DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of HSF1 in heat-shocked cells. Specific inhibition of GSK3 increased the levels of DNA binding and transcription after heat shock and delayed the attenuation of HSF1 during recovery. In contrast, the overexpression of GSK3beta resulted in significant reduction in heat-induced HSF1 activities. These results confirm the role of GSK3beta as a negative regulator of HSF1 transcription in cells during heat shock and demonstrate for the first time that GSK3beta functions to repress DNA binding.
PubMed ID: 10856293
Article link: J Biol Chem.
Genes referenced: gsk3b gys1 hsf1 hsp90aa1.1