XB-ART-11610J Biol Chem January 28, 2000; 275 (4): 2367-75.
Regulation of Xenopus p21-activated kinase (X-PAK2) by Cdc42 and maturation-promoting factor controls Xenopus oocyte maturation.
Signal transduction cascades involved in regulation of the cell cycle machinery are poorly understood. In the Xenopus oocyte model, meiotic maturation is triggered by MPF, a complex of p34(cdc2)-cyclin B, which is activated in response to a progesterone signal by largely unknown mechanisms. We have previously shown that the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family negatively regulates the MPF amplification loop. In this study, we identify the endogenous PAK2 as a key enzyme in this regulation and describe the pathways by which PAK2 is regulated. We show that the small GTPase Cdc42 is required for maintenance of active endogenous X-PAK2 in resting stage VI oocytes, whereas Rac1 is not involved in this regulation. During the process of maturation, X-PAK2 phosphorylation results in its inactivation and allows maturation to proceed to completion. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclin B-p34(cdc2) is coincident with X-PAK2 inactivation, and purified active MPF inhibits X-PAK2, demonstrating the existence of a new positive feedback loop. Our results confirm and extend the importance of p21-activated kinases in the control of the G(2)/M transition. We hypothesize that the X-PAK2/Cdc42 pathway could link p34(cdc2) activity to the major cytoskeleton rearrangements leading to spindle migration and anchorage to the animal pole cortex.
PubMed ID: 10644687
Article link: J Biol Chem
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdc42 cdk1 cdkn1a pak1 pak2 pkn2 rac1