XB-ART-12908Semin Cell Dev Biol. February 1, 1999; 10 (1): 109-16.
Asymmetric heart tube looping and chamber morphogenesis is a complex process that is just beginning to be understood at the genetic level. Rightward looping is the first embryological manifestation of consistently oriented, left-right asymmetric development of nearly all visceral organs. Intuitively, invariant anatomical asymmetry must derive from a novel mechanism capable of integrating dorsoventral and anteroposterior information. The details of this process are emerging for several vertebrates and reveal that overall left-right asymmetry, once polarized with respect to dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes, unfolds through distinct left- and right-sided programs of gene expression. These, in turn, regulate expression of cardiac and chamber-specific genes which guide heart morphogenesis and differentiation.
PubMed ID: 10355035
Article link: Semin Cell Dev Biol.