Biol Cell. November 1, 1998; 90 (8):
Mos-induced p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation stabilizes M-phase in Xenopus egg extracts after cyclin destruction.
Chau AS , Shibuya EK .
AbstractPreviously, we have shown that the addition of a constitutively-active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase protein (MAPKK = MEK) to cycling Xenopus egg extracts activates the p42MAPK pathway, leading to a G2 or M-phase cell cycle arrest. The stage of the arrest depends on the timing of p42MAPK activation. If p42MAPK is activated prior to M-phase, or after exit from M-phase, the extract is arrested in G2. If p42MAPK is activated during entry into M-phase, the extract is arrested in M-phase. In this study, we show that the addition of recombinant Mos protein (which directly phosphorylates and activates MEK) to cycling egg extracts has the same effect as those described for MEK. The addition of Mos to the extract at the start of incubation leads to a G2 arrest with large interphase nuclei with intact nuclear envelopes. If Mos is added at later times, however, the activation of p42MAPK leads to an M-phase arrest with condensed chromosomes and mitotic arrays of microtubules. Moreover, the extent of M-phase specific phosphorylations is shown by the sustained presence of phosphoproteins that are detected by the monoclonal antibody MPM-2. Unexpectedly, in certain M-phase arrested extracts, histone H1 kinase activity levels reach a peak on entry into M-phase but then fall abruptly to interphase levels. When these extracts are analyzed by immunoblotting, Cyclin B2 is destroyed in those samples containing low maturation promoting factor activity (MPF, cyclin B/Cdc2), yet chromosomes remain condensed with associated mitotic arrays of microtubules and M-phase-specific phosphorylations are sustained. These results suggest that although MPF is required for entry into M-phase, once established, M-phase can be maintained by the p42MAPK pathway after the proteolysis of mitotic cyclins.
Pubmed Id: 10069001Article link: Biol Cell.