XB-ART-13931Dev Dyn November 1, 1998; 213 (3): 309-21.
Expression of myogenic regulatory factors during muscle development of Xenopus: myogenin mRNA accumulation is limited strictly to secondary myogenesis.
To clarify the acquisition of the adult muscle pattern in Xenopus laevis, in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to correlate the time course of gene expression for myogenic regulatory factors (Myf-5, MyoD, and myogenin) with the expression of contractile protein (myosin heavy chain; MHC) genes during hindlimb formation compared with their expression in dorsal body muscles. After the precocious expression of Myf-5 and MyoD mRNA in limb bud (stage 50), myogenin mRNA strongly accumulated later at paddle stages (stages 52/53) concomitantly with the accumulation of both the larval and the adult MHC mRNAs. In dorsal body muscles, as early as stage 52, myogenin transcripts accumulated in a few small, secondary myofibers expressing the adult MHC mRNA that were located along the dorsomedial edge, but they were never detected in the large, primary myofibers of the body expressing the larval MHC mRNA. During metamorphosis, the areas expressing both the adult MHC and the myogenin transcripts gradually expanded from the dorsomedial edge to the ventral side of the dorsal body muscles, accounting for the progression of the secondary "adult" myogenesis described previously (Nishikawa and Hayashi  Dev. Biol. 165:86-94). This work shows that, in Xenopus, the accumulation of myogenin mRNA is restricted to secondary myogenesis, including the formation of new muscles in developing limbs as well as in dorsal muscles during body remodeling. This shows that myogenin is not required for primary myogenesis, and it suggests a crucial role for myogenin in the terminal differentiation program, including myoblast fusion and the activation of adult-type muscle genes.
PubMed ID: 9825866
Article link: Dev Dyn
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: myf5 myh4 myh6 myod1 myog