XB-ART-14453Mol Cell July 1, 1998; 2 (1): 109-20.
Smad2 and Smad3 positively and negatively regulate TGF beta-dependent transcription through the forkhead DNA-binding protein FAST2.
We identify a mammalian forkhead domain protein, FAST2, that is required for induction of the goosecoid (gsc) promoter by TGF beta or activin signaling. FAST2 binds to a sequence in the gsc promoter, but efficient transcriptional activation and assembly of a DNA-binding complex of FAST2, Smad2, and Smad4 requires an adjacent Smad4 site. Smad3 is closely related to Smad2 but suppresses activation of the gsc promoter. Inhibitory activity is conferred by the MH1 domain, which unlike that of Smad2, binds to the Smad4 site. Through competition for this shared site, Smad3 may prevent transcription by altering the conformation of the DNA-binding complex. Thus, we describe a mechanism whereby Smad2 and Smad3 positively and negatively regulate a TGF beta/activin target gene.
PubMed ID: 9702197
Article link: Mol Cell
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: gsc smad2 smad3 smad4 smad4.2 tgfb1