XB-ART-16258J Immunol July 15, 1997; 159 (2): 734-40.
Evolution of proteasome subunits delta and LMP2: complementary DNA cloning and linkage analysis with MHC in lower vertebrates.
The class II region of the mammalian MHC harbors two proteasome subunit genes, LMP2 and LMP7. These genes are induced by IFN-gamma, and their products are incorporated into proteasomes substituting for their closest relatives, the delta and X subunits, respectively. This substitution is believed to change the proteolytic specificity of proteasomes, making it more suitable for generation of peptides to be presented by class I molecules. To elucidate the phylogenetic origin of LMP2 and the linkage of its gene with the MHC, reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification of Xenopus laevis and lamprey liver mRNA was performed with primers designed to amplify both the mammalian LMP2 and delta sequences. Both LMP2 and delta were amplified from X. laevis, whereas only delta was amplified from lamprey, suggesting that delta/LMP2 gene duplication occurred after divergence of cyclostomes but before divergence of amphibians. The linkage between the LMP2 gene and the MHC was observed in a diploid Xenopus species, Xenopus tropicalis, but not in a tetraploid species, X. laevis, indicating that this linkage was established before the divergence of amphibian from higher vertebrates, but that this linkage was lost in X. laevis, probably by a gene reorganization accompanying the tetraploidization. The X. laevis LMP2 and LMP7 mRNA showed a similar tissue distribution, indicating that the genetic linkage is not required for apparently coordinated tissue-specific expression of these genes. Sequence and linkage analyses suggest that LMP2 may not play as vital a role as LMP7 in Ag presentation.
PubMed ID: 9218589
Article link: J Immunol
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ag1 mhc1a myh4 psmb8 psmb9