XB-ART-1960Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. June 7, 2005; 102 (23): 8089-96; discussion 8086-8.
Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations.
Timothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder that causes syncope and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Prominent features include congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities, and autism. All TS individuals have syndactyly (webbing of fingers and toes). We discovered that TS resulted from a recurrent, de novo cardiac L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2) mutation, G406R. G406 is located in alternatively spliced exon 8A, encoding transmembrane segment S6 of domain I. Here, we describe two individuals with a severe variant of TS (TS2). Neither child had syndactyly. Both individuals had extreme prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, with a QT interval corrected for heart rate ranging from 620 to 730 ms, causing multiple arrhythmias and sudden death. One individual had severe mental retardation and nemaline rod skeletal myopathy. We identified de novo missense mutations in exon 8 of CaV1.2 in both individuals. One was an analogous mutation to that found in exon 8A in classic TS, G406R. The other mutation was G402S. Exon 8 encodes the same region as exon 8A, and the two are mutually exclusive. The spliced form of CaV1.2 containing exon 8 is highly expressed in heart and brain, accounting for approximately 80% of CaV1.2 mRNAs. G406R and G402S cause reduced channel inactivation, resulting in maintained depolarizing L-type calcium currents. Computer modeling showed prolongation of cardiomyocyte action potentials and delayed afterdepolarizations, factors that increase risk of arrhythmia. These data indicate that gain-of-function mutations of CaV1.2 exons 8 and 8A cause distinct forms of TS.
PubMed ID: 15863612
PMC ID: PMC1149428
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Grant support: AR44345 NIAMS NIH HHS , HL46401 NHLBI NIH HHS , HL52338 NHLBI NIH HHS , P30 HD18655 NICHD NIH HHS , T32HL07572 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL044365 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 AR044345 NIAMS NIH HHS , P50 HL052338 NHLBI NIH HHS , T32 HL007572 NHLBI NIH HHS , P30 HD018655 NICHD NIH HHS , R01 HL046401 NHLBI NIH HHS
Genes referenced: cav1