XB-ART-20465Mol Cell Biol December 1, 1994; 14 (12): 7867-75.
Further analysis of cytoplasmic polyadenylation in Xenopus embryos and identification of embryonic cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding proteins.
Early development in Xenopus laevis is programmed in part by maternally inherited mRNAs that are synthesized and stored in the growing oocyte. During oocyte maturation, several of these messages are translationally activated by poly(A) elongation, which in turn is regulated by two cis elements in the 3'' untranslated region, the hexanucleotide AAUAAA and a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) consisting of UUUUUAU or similar sequence. In the early embryo, a different set of maternal mRNAs is translationally activated. We have shown previously that one of these, C12, requires a CPE consisting of at least 12 uridine residues, in addition to the hexanucleotide, for its cytoplasmic polyadenylation and subsequent translation (R. Simon, J.-P. Tassan, and J.D. Richter, Genes Dev. 6:2580-2591, 1992). To assess whether this embryonic CPE functions in other maternal mRNAs, we have chosen Cl1 RNA, which is known to be polyadenylated during early embryogenesis (J. Paris, B. Osborne, A. Couturier, R. LeGuellec, and M. Philippe, Gene 72:169-176, 1988). Wild-type as well as mutated versions of Cl1 RNA were injected into fertilized eggs and were analyzed for cytoplasmic polyadenylation at times up to the gastrula stage. This RNA also required a poly(U) CPE for cytoplasmic polyadenylation in embryos, but in this case the CPE consisted of 18 uridine residues. In addition, the timing and extent of cytoplasmic poly(A) elongation during early embryogenesis were dependent upon the distance between the CPE and the hexanucleotide. Further, as was the case with Cl2 RNA, Cl1 RNA contains a large masking element that prevents premature cytoplasmic polyadenylation during oocyte maturation. To examine the factors that may be involved in the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of both C12 and C11 RNAs, we performed UV cross-linking experiments in egg extracts. Two proteins with sizes of ~36 and ~45 kDa interacted specifically with the CPEs of both RNAs, although they bound preferentially to the C12 CPE. The role that these proteins might play in cytoplasmic polyadenylation is discussed.
PubMed ID: 7969126
PMC ID: PMC359325
Article link: Mol Cell Biol
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: etf1
References [+] :
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