XB-ART-21989Science November 19, 1993; 262 (5137): 1262-5.
Induction of metaphase arrest in cleaving Xenopus embryos by MAP kinase.
The natural arrest of vertebrate unfertilized eggs in second meiotic metaphase results from the activity of cytostatic factor (CSF). The product of the c-mos(xe) proto-oncogene is thought to be a component of CSF and can induce metaphase arrest when injected into blastomeres of two-cell embryos. The c-Mos(xe) protein can directly activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP kinase kinase) in vitro, leading to activation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase and c-Mos(xe) are active in unfertilized eggs and are rapidly inactivated after fertilization. Microinjection of thiophosphorylated MAP kinase into one blastomere of a two-cell embryo induced metaphase arrest similar to that induced by c-Mos(xe). However, only arrest with c-Mos(xe) was associated with activation of endogenous MAP kinase. These results indicate that active MAP kinase is a component of CSF in Xenopus and suggest that the CSF activity of c-Mos(xe) is mediated by MAP kinase.
PubMed ID: 8235656
Article link: Science
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: mapk1 mos