XB-ART-22151J Cell Sci October 1, 1993; 106 ( Pt 2) 523-34.
Calcium buffer injections inhibit cytokinesis in Xenopus eggs.
A slow cortical wave of high calcium accompanies the elongation of cleavage furrows in medaka fish eggs as well as in Xenopus eggs. We explored the role of such waves by injecting calcium buffers into Xenopus eggs at various times before and during first and second cleavage. Injection earlier than about 15 minutes before first cleavage normally starts delays it for hours. Injection between about 15 minutes and a few minutes before cleavage normally starts allows a (short) furrow to form on time but usually yields an eccentric one. This forms away from the injection side, often as far off-center as the egg''s equator, and then regresses. Injection soon after it starts quickly arrests elongation of the furrow and eventually induces its regression; while injection a bit later likewise soon arrests elongation but allows delocalized furrow deepening to continue. The dependence of these inhibitory actions upon the dissociation constants and final cytosolic concentrations of the injected buffers indicates that they act as shuttle buffers to suppress needed zones of high calcium in the micromolar range. We conclude that the high calcium that is found within these furrows is needed to induce them, to extend them and even to maintain them. Moreover, while short, eccentric furrows often form as far off center as the equator, they somehow always form along a meridian through the animal pole. This seems difficult to explain by the orthodox, diastral model. Rather, it suggests that the cleavage furrows in Xenopus--and perhaps in animal cells quite generally--are directly induced by a diastema or telophase disc rather than by the asters.
PubMed ID: 8282759
Article link: J Cell Sci