XB-ART-23085Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A December 15, 1992; 89 (24): 11939-43.
Resistance to host antimicrobial peptides is necessary for Salmonella virulence.
The production of antibacterial peptides is a host defense strategy used by various species, including mammals, amphibians, and insects. Successful pathogens, such as the facultative intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium, have evolved resistance mechanisms to this ubiquitous type of host defense. To identify the genes required for resistance to host peptides, we isolated a library of 20,000 MudJ transposon insertion mutants of a virulent peptide-resistant S. typhimurium strain and screened it for hypersensitivity to the antimicrobial peptide protamine. Eighteen mutants had heightened susceptibility to protamine and 12 of them were characterized in detail. Eleven mutants were attenuated for virulence in vivo when inoculated into BALB/c mice by the intragastric route, and 8 of them were also avirulent following intraperitoneal inoculation. The mutants fell into different phenotypic classes with respect to their susceptibility to rabbit defensin NP-1, frog magainin 2, pig cecropin P1, and the insect venom-derived peptides mastoparan and melittin. The resistance loci mapped to eight distinct locations in the genome. Characterization of the mutants showed that one had a defective lipopolysaccharide and another mutant harbored a mutation in phoP, a locus previously shown to control expression of Salmonella virulence genes. Our data indicate that the ability to resist the killing effect of host antimicrobial peptides is a virulence property and that several resistance mechanisms operate in S. typhimurium.
PubMed ID: 1465423
PMC ID: PMC50673
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: magainins nrp1
References [+] :
Benjamin, The Salmonella typhimurium locus mviA regulates virulence in Itys but not Ityr mice: functional mviA results in avirulence; mutant (nonfunctional) mviA results in virulence. 1991, Pubmed