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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A March 15, 1992; 89 (6): 2321-5.

Multiple retinoid-responsive receptors in a single cell: families of retinoid "X" receptors and retinoic acid receptors in the Xenopus egg.

Blumberg B , Mangelsdorf DJ , Dyck JA , Bittner DA , Evans RM , De Robertis EM .

In a search for nuclear hormone receptors expressed in early development we found that Xenopus laevis eggs contain mRNAs from two retinoic acid receptor genes (xRAR alpha and xRAR gamma) and two retinoid "X" receptor genes (xRXR alpha and xRXR gamma). We also show that RXRs are members of a family of at least three genes, thus expanding the number of genes encoding retinoic acid-responsive transcription factors to six. With the exception of xRXR gamma, these maternal mRNAs are degraded before gastrulation. The RXRs isolated are differentially activated by retinoic acid and by 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid. Considered together, these four receptors provide a molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid on early development, and their pattern of expression suggests a role for retinoic acid at the earliest stages of embryonic determination.

PubMed ID: 1312717
PMC ID: PMC48649
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: rara rarb rarg rxra

References [+] :
Auffray, Purification of mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain messenger RNAs from total myeloma tumor RNA. 1980, Pubmed