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Dev Dyn February 1, 2005; 232 (2): 414-31.

Global analysis of RAR-responsive genes in the Xenopus neurula using cDNA microarrays.

Arima K , Shiotsugu J , Niu R , Khandpur R , Martinez M , Shin Y , Koide T , Cho KW , Kitayama A , Ueno N , Chandraratna RA , Blumberg B .

Retinoid signaling is important for patterning the vertebrate hindbrain and midaxial regions. We recently showed that signaling through retinoic acid receptors (RARs) is essential for anteroposterior patterning along the entire body axis. To further investigate the mechanisms through which RARs act, we used microarray analysis to investigate the effects of modulating RAR activity on target gene expression. We identified 334 up-regulated genes (92% of which were validated), including known RA-responsive genes, known genes that have never been proposed as RA targets and many hypothetical and unidentified genes (n = 166). Sixty-seven validated down-regulated genes were identified, including known RA-responsive genes and anterior marker genes. The expression patterns of selected up-regulated genes (n = 45) were examined at neurula stages using whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that most of these genes were expressed in the neural tube and many were expressed in anterior tissues such as neural crest, brain, eye anlagen, and cement gland. Some were expressed in tissues such as notochord, somites, pronephros, and blood islands, where retinoic acid (RA) plays established roles in organogenesis. Members of this set of newly identified RAR target genes are likely to play important roles in neural patterning and organogenesis under the control of RAR signaling pathways, and their further characterization will expand our understanding of RA signaling during development.

PubMed ID: 15614783
Article link: Dev Dyn
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: 1a11 acsl1 agr2 aldh1a2 cdx4 cldn1 cyp11a1 cyp26a1 cyp4b1 dhrs3 dusp6 epc2 etv1 fetub fgf2 fli1 foxa1 frzb gata2 gata4 gata5 gbx2.2 gdf3 gsc gse1 hnf1b hoxa1 hoxd4 hrg lmo2 lmo4.1 mdk meis1 meis3 mxi1 ncoa3 ndrg1 nkain4 nop58 nptn nr5a2 nr6a1 otx2 pitx1 pkdcc.1 pkdcc.2 prph rab40b rara sall1 sema3fl shd slc12a1 slc27a2 slc38a8 sox3 tbxt.2 tcaf1 tcaf2 tfcp2l1 tll2 tmem150c tmem38a tubb4a ubp1 xa-1 xepsin

GEO Series: GSE2295: NCBI

Article Images: [+] show captions