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Gen Comp Endocrinol September 15, 2004; 138 (3): 228-36.

Effects of 17beta-estradiol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol-A on developing Xenopus laevis embryos.

Sone K , Hinago M , Kitayama A , Morokuma J , Ueno N , Watanabe H , Iguchi T .

Many chemicals released into the environment have the capacity to disrupt the normal development of aquatic animals. We investigated the influence of nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol-A (BPA), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing Xenopus laevis embryos, as a model animal in the aquatic environment. Embryos were exposed to eight different concentrations of NP, BPA or E2 between 3 and 96 h post-fertilization (p.f.). Short body length, microcephaly, flexure, edema, and abnormal gut coiling were induced by 20 microM NP, BPA or 10 microM E2 by 96 h p.f. To clarify sensitive stages to these compounds, embryos were exposed to chemicals for 45 or 48 h starting at different developmental stages and experiments were terminated 96 h p.f. BPA and NP induced abnormalities in developing X. laevis, though the sensitive stages of embryos to these chemicals are different, BPA affecting earlier stages and NP affecting at later stages. To analyze the functional mechanisms of BPA and NP in induction of morphological changes, we adapted a DNA array technology and identified 6 X. laevis genes, XIRG, alpha skeletal tropomyosin, cyclin G1, HGF, troponin C2, and ribosomal protein L9. These findings may provide important clues to elucidate common mechanisms underlying teratogenic effects of these chemicals.

PubMed ID: 15364205
Article link: Gen Comp Endocrinol

Genes referenced: acod1lb ccng1 hgf rpl9 tnnc2 tpm1

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