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Chromosoma January 1, 1980; 77 (1): 83-103.

Chromosome banding in amphibia. IV. Differentiation of GC- and AT-rich chromosome regions in Anura.

Schmid M .

The chromosomes of 26 species of Anura from variously highly envolved groups were analysed with the fluorescent GC-specific antibiotics mithramycin and chromomycin A3 as well as with the AT-specific quinacrine. The mithramycin- and chromomycin A3-stainings generally resulted in a pattern of the constitutive heterochromatin opposite to the one obtained with quinacrine stain. The weaker a heterochromatic region fluoresces with quinacrine, the stronger is the intensity of the fluorescence achieved with mithramycin and chromomycin A3. Some of the telomeric and interstitial heterochromatic regions, however, exhibit no enhanced fluorescence with any of the fluorochromes. The nucleolar constrictions of the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) displayed the brightest mithramycin- and chromomycin A3-fluorescence in the karyotypes and interphase nuclei of all species examined. The contrast of the brightly fluorescing GC-rich heterochromatin and of the NORs is considerably enhanced, when the non-fluorescent AT-specific oligopeptide distamycin A is employed as a counterstain. No banding patterns were observed with the fluorochromes in the euchromatic regions of the metaphase chromosomes; this attributed to the strong spiralization of the anuran chromosomes. A cytochemical classification of the various chromatin types in the anuran chromosomes is discussed on the basis of the differential labelings found on the constitutive heterochromatin by means of the fluorochromes.

PubMed ID: 7371452
Article link: Chromosoma

References [+] :
Arrighi, The sex chromosomes of the Chinese hamster: constitutive heterochromatin deficient in repetitive DNA sequences. 1974, Pubmed