Phosphorylation of CK1delta: identification of Ser370 as the major phosphorylation site targeted by PKA in vitro and in vivo.
The involvement of CK1 (casein kinase 1) delta in the regulation of multiple cellular processes implies a tight regulation of its activity on many different levels. At the protein level, reversible phosphorylation plays an important role in modulating the activity of CK1delta. In the present study, we show that PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase), Akt (protein kinase B), CLK2 (CDC-like kinase 2) and PKC (protein kinase C) alpha all phosphorylate CK1delta. PKA was identified as the major cellular CK1deltaCK (CK1delta C-terminal-targeted protein kinase) for the phosphorylation of CK1delta in vitro and in vivo. This was implied by the following evidence: PKA was detectable in the CK1deltaCK peak fraction of fractionated MiaPaCa-2 cell extracts, PKA shared nearly identical kinetic properties with those of CK1deltaCK, and both PKA and CK1deltaCK phosphorylated CK1delta at Ser370 in vitro. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA decreased substrate phosphorylation of CK1delta in vitro. Mutation of Ser370 to alanine increased the phosphorylation affinity of CK1delta for beta-casein and the GST (gluthatione S-transferase)-p53 1-64 fusion protein in vitro and enhanced the formation of an ectopic dorsal axis during Xenopus laevis development. Anchoring of PKA and CK1delta to centrosomes was mediated by AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) 450. Interestingly, pre-incubation of MiaPaCa-2 cells with the synthetic peptide St-Ht31, which prevents binding between AKAP450 and the regulatory subunit RII of PKA, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of CK1delta. In summary, we conclude that PKA phosphorylates CK1delta, predominantly at Ser370 in vitro and in vivo, and that site-specific phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA plays an important role in modulating CK1delta-dependent processes.
PubMed ID: 17594292
PMC ID: PMC2049039
Article link: Biochem J.
Genes referenced: akap13 akap9 akt1 clk2 csnk1a1 tp53