XB-ART-37195Mol Endocrinol May 1, 2008; 22 (5): 1065-77.
Participation of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1)-associated factor 57 and BRG1-containing chromatin remodeling complexes in thyroid hormone-dependent gene activation during vertebrate development.
Multiple cofactors and chromatin remodeling complexes have been identified to contribute to the transcriptional activation regulated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in vitro. However, their role and function during development in vivo remains to be elucidated. The total dependence of amphibian metamorphosis on thyroid hormone T3 provides a unique vertebrate model for studying the molecular mechanism of TR function in vivo. In this study, we show that the expression of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), a chromatin-remodeling enzyme, is up-regulated at the climax of Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, whereas BRG1-associated factor 57 (BAF57), a BRG1-binding protein in BRG1-containing chromatin remodeling complexes, is constitutively expressed during development. Consistently, T3 treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles led to up-regulation of the expression of BRG1 but not BAF57. Studies using a reconstituted T3-dependent Xenopus oocyte transcription system, where we could study TR function in the context of chromatin, revealed that BRG1 enhances the transcriptional activation by ligand-bound TRs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas a remodeling-defective BRG1 mutant inhibited the activation, suggesting that this process relies on chromatin remodeling. Additional studies showed that BAF57 interacted with BRG1 in oocytes and enhanced gene activation by TR cooperatively with BRG1 in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that BAF57 was recruited to the TR-regulated promoter in the presence of TR and T3. Together, these findings suggest a role of BRG1/BAF57-containing chromatin remodeling complexes in TR-regulated gene expression during postembryonic development.
PubMed ID: 18238828
PMC ID: PMC2366179
Article link: Mol Endocrinol
Genes referenced: smarca4 smarce1
References [+] :
Amano, Thyroid hormone regulation of a transcriptional coactivator in Xenopus laevis: implication for a role in postembryonic tissue remodeling. 2002, Pubmed, Xenbase