XB-ART-37836Dev Biol July 1, 2004; 271 (1): 176-89.
The forkhead genes, Foxc1 and Foxc2, regulate paraxial versus intermediate mesoderm cell fate.
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the newly formed mesoderm is allocated to the paraxial, intermediate, and lateral domains, each giving rise to different cell and tissue types. Here, we provide evidence that the forkhead genes, Foxc1 and Foxc2, play a role in the specification of mesoderm to paraxial versus intermediate fates. Mouse embryos lacking both Foxc1 and Foxc2 show expansion of intermediate mesoderm markers into the paraxial domain, lateralization of somite patterning, and ectopic and disorganized mesonephric tubules. In gain of function studies in the chick embryo, Foxc1 and Foxc2 negatively regulate intermediate mesoderm formation. By contrast, their misexpression in the prospective intermediate mesoderm appears to drive cells to acquire paraxial fate, as revealed by expression of the somite markers Pax7 and Paraxis. Taken together, the data indicate that Foxc1 and Foxc2 regulate the establishment of paraxial versus intermediate mesoderm cell fates in the vertebrate embryo.
PubMed ID: 15196959
Article link: Dev Biol
Genes referenced: foxc1 foxc2 pax7 tcf15
Article Images: [+] show captions
|Fig. 8. FoxC2 induces ectopic expression of paraxial genes in the intermediate mesoderm. Chick embryos were electroporated with cFoxC2 (A–D and F–I) and analyzed for expression of Paraxis (C–D) and Pax-7 (H and I). The same embryo is shown by brightfield (A), fluorescence to detect GFP (B), and transcript for Paraxis (C), while D is a separate embryo showing Paraxis expression only. Control embryo in E without electroporation, hybridized for Paraxis in the same vial as embryos in C and D. Note the expansion of Paraxis expression into the IM adjacent to the somites (arrows, C and D) when compared to control (E). (F–H) View of the same microscopic field illustrates nuclei (DAPI, F), GFP (G), and Pax7 (H). (I) Different electroporated embryo depicting Pax7 only. Note the expansion of Pax7 into the IM (*) but not into the lateral plate (H and I) when compared to controls (J and K). Abbreviations as in Fig. 7; lp, lateral plate.|