Xenopus pancreas development.
Understanding how the pancreas develops is vital to finding new treatments for a range of pancreatic diseases, including diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Xenopus is a relatively new model organism for the elucidation of pancreas development, and has already made contributions to the field. Recent studies have shown benefits of using Xenopus for understanding both early patterning and lineage specification aspects of pancreas organogenesis. This review focuses specifically on Xenopus pancreas development, and covers events from the end of gastrulation, when regional specification of the endoderm is occurring, right through metamorphosis, when the mature pancreas is fully formed. We have attempted to cover pancreas development in Xenopus comprehensively enough to assist newcomers to the field and also to enable those studying pancreas development in other model organisms to better place the results from Xenopus research into the context of the field in general and their studies specifically. Developmental Dynamics 238:1271-1286, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PubMed ID: 19334283
PMC ID: PMC2921176
Article link: Dev Dyn.
Grant support: 2 R01 GM022395-33 NIGMS NIH HHS , 5R01DK77197-02 NIDDK NIH HHS , R01 DK077197-04 NIDDK NIH HHS , R01 DK077197 NIDDK NIH HHS
Genes referenced: abcc8 gcg ins insm1 pax6 ptf1a unnamed
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|Figure 2. Developing pancreatic buds. A: NF32 tadpole showing Ptf1a RNA expression in the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds prior to overt morphogenesis. B: Ptf1a expression in a NF40 tadpole, after buds have fused. C,D: Transgenic tadpoles expressing GFP under the control of the elastase promoter at (C) NF40 and (D) NF42. A-C: Anterior to the left, dorsal up (lateral view). D: Anterior to the left, ventral view. vp, ventral pancreas; dp, dorsal pancreas.|
|Figure 3. Endocrine marker expression in isolated liver and pancreas tissue. A-C: Diagrammatic representations of the livers and pancreases: pink, liver; bright blue, ventral pancreas; dark blue, dorsal pancreas; green, gall bladder. D-L: Whole mount in situ hybridization for insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin at NF40, NF44, and NF46.|
|Figure 4. Exocrine marker expression in isolated liver and pancreas tissue. A-C: Elastase expression. D-G: Mist1 expression.|
|Figure 5. Expression of endocrine pancreatic factors in isolated liver and pancreas tissue. A,B: Pax6 expression. C,D: Insm1 expression. E,F: Sur1 expression.|