XB-ART-39821Nat Protoc. January 1, 2009; 4 (6): 975-83.
Multichannel wholemount fluorescent and fluorescent/chromogenic in situ hybridization in Xenopus embryos.
In situ hybridization (ISH) is widely used to study the spatial distribution of gene expression in developing embryos. It is the method of choice to analyze the normal pattern of expression of a gene and also to characterize how the expression of a gene, or a group of genes, is altered in response to experimental or genetic manipulations. The standard protocols for this technique use a chromogenic reaction that produces a purple or red precipitate in cells expressing the target gene. This technique has significant disadvantages when compared with fluorescent techniques, as it cannot detect regions of overlap and external staining masks internal staining. We present a protocol for three-channel fluorescent ISH (FISH) optimized for wholemount analysis of large vertebrate embryos. Multichannel FISH in combination with immunofluorescence or chromogenic ISH offers a suite of approaches that allow accurate mapping of overlapping gene expression patterns in two- and three-dimensions. The time required for the protocol varies depending on the number of channels sampled and ranges from 3 to 5 d plus an additional 2 d to completely wash embryos and prepare for documentation.
PubMed ID: 19498377
Article link: Nat Protoc.
Genes referenced: atp1a1 slc12a1 tbx2
Article Images: [+] show captions
|This is an example of one of the figures in the paper, originally from Urban et al., 1996. The images show an embryo processed for two different pronephric genes via fluorescent in situ (atp1a1 and nkcc2 / slc12a1), one shown in red and one in green, Overlap is yellow. The embryo was then counterstained with an anti-somite antibody (12-101) in blue.|