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XB-ART-40030
Mech Dev. October 1, 2009; 126 (10): 913-23.

Retinoic acid regulates anterior-posterior patterning within the lateral plate mesoderm of Xenopus.

Deimling SJ , Drysdale TA .


Abstract
The lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) lines the body cavities, gives rise to the heart and circulatory system and is responsible for patterning the underlying endoderm. We describe gene expression domains within the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage Xenopus embryo that demonstrate a marked anterior posterior pattern in that tissue. FoxF1 and Nkx-2.5 are expressed in the anterior LPM, Hand1 in the middle and Xsal-1 in the posterior LPM. Since retinoic acid is known to pattern many tissues during development, and RALDH2, the enzyme primarily responsible for retinoic acid synthesis, is expressed in the anterior and dorsal LPM, we hypothesized that retinoic acid is necessary for correct patterning of the LPM. Exposure to exogenous retinoic acid during neurulation led to an expansion of the anterior and middle expression domains and a reduction of the posterior domain whereas exposure to a retinoic acid antagonist resulted in smaller anterior and middle expression domains. Furthermore, inhibition of RALDH2, which should decrease endogenous RA levels, caused a reduction of anterior domains indicating that endogenous RA is necessary for regulating their size. After altering retinoic acid signaling in a temporally restricted window, the displaced anterior-posterior pattern is maintained until gut looping, as demonstrated by permanently altered Hand1, FoxF1, xHoxC-10, and Pitx2 expression domains. We conclude that the broad expression domains of key transcription factors demonstrate a novel anterior-posterior pattern within the LPM and that retinoic acid can regulate the size of these domains in a coordinated manner.

PubMed ID: 19595764
Article link: Mech Dev.

Genes referenced: aldh1a2 cyp26a1 foxf1 hand1 nkx2-5 pitx2 sall3



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