Evaluation and refinement of euthanasia methods for Xenopus laevis.
The most common method of euthanasia for Xenopus species is by immersion in tricaine methane sulfonate solution (MS222). A wide range of doses of MS222 (0.5 to 5 g/L) have been recommended, but few reports describe dose-response testing, the time to loss of consciousness, or the reliability of euthanasia. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of immersing individual and groups of frogs in MS222 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 g/L for euthanasia and of 3 less-common methods: intracoelomic injection of MS222, intracoelomic injection of sodium pentobarbital with phenytoin, and ventral cutaneous application of benzocaine gel. Our results indicate that immersion for at least 1 h in a 5-g/L buffered solution of MS222, intracoelomic injection of 1100 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital with sodium phenytoin (equivalent to 0.3 mL solution per frog), or ventral cutaneous application of 182 mg/kg benzocaine (equivalent to a 2 cm x 1 mm of 20% benzocaine gel) is necessary to euthanize adult X. laevis and ensure complete cessation of the heartbeat without recovery. These doses are considerably higher than those previously recommended for this species.
PubMed ID: 19807972
PMC ID: PMC2755021
Article link: J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci.