Methoxycarbonyl-etomidate: a novel rapidly metabolized and ultra-short-acting etomidate analogue that does not produce prolonged adrenocortical suppression.
Etomidate is a rapidly acting sedative-hypnotic that provides hemodynamic stability. It causes prolonged suppression of adrenocortical steroid synthesis; therefore, its clinical utility and safety are limited. The authors describe the results of studies to define the pharmacology of (R)-3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (MOC-etomidate), the first etomidate analogue designed to be susceptible to ultra-rapid metabolism. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor activities of MOC-etomidate and etomidate were compared by using electrophysiological techniques in human alpha1beta2gamma2l receptors. MOC-etomidate''s hypnotic concentration was determined in tadpoles by using a loss of righting reflex assay. Its in vitro metabolic half-life was measured in human liver S9 fraction, and the resulting metabolite was provisionally identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. The hypnotic and hemodynamic actions of MOC-etomidate, etomidate, and propofol were defined in rats. The abilities of MOC-etomidate and etomidate to inhibit corticosterone production were assessed in rats. MOC-etomidate potently enhanced gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function and produced loss of righting reflex in tadpoles. Metabolism in human liver S9 fraction was first-order, with an in vitro half-life of 4.4 min versus more than 40 min for etomidate. MOC-etomidate''s only detectable metabolite was a carboxylic acid. In rats, MOC-etomidate produced rapid loss of righting reflex that was extremely brief and caused minimal hemodynamic changes. Unlike etomidate, MOC-etomidate produced no adrenocortical suppression 30 min after administration. MOC-etomidate is an etomidate analogue that retains etomidate''s important favorable pharmacological properties. However, it is rapidly metabolized, ultra-short-acting, and does not produce prolonged adrenocortical suppression after bolus administration.
PubMed ID: 19625798
PMC ID: PMC2739411
Article link: Anesthesiology.
Grant support: P01-GM58448 NIGMS NIH HHS , P01 GM058448-05 NIGMS NIH HHS , R01 GM087316-02 NIGMS NIH HHS , R01 GM087316-01A1 NIGMS NIH HHS , R01 GM087316-03 NIGMS NIH HHS , R01 GM087316 NIGMS NIH HHS , P01 GM058448 NIGMS NIH HHS