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Dev Biol February 1, 2004; 266 (1): 87-95.

Expression of type II iodothyronine deiodinase marks the time that a tissue responds to thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis.

Cai L , Brown DD .

The thyroid gland synthesizes thyroxine (T4), which passes through the larval tadpole''s circulatory system. The enzyme type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) converts thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone 3,5,3''-triiodothyronine (T3) in peripheral tissues. An early response to thyroid hormone (TH) in the Xenopus laevis tadpole is the stimulation of cell division in cells that line the brain ventricles, the lumen of the spinal cord, and the limb buds. These cells express constitutively high levels of D2 mRNA. Exogenous T4 induces early DNA synthesis in brain, spinal cord, and limb buds as efficiently as T3. The deiodinase inhibitor iopanoic acid blocks T4- but not T3-induced cell division. At metamorphic climax, both TH-induced cell division and D2 expression decrease in the brain. Then D2 expression appears in late-responding tissues including the anterior pituitary, the intestine, and the tail where cell division is reduced or absent. Therefore, constitutive expression of D2 occurs in the earliest target tissues of TH that will grow and differentiate, while TH-induced expression of D2 takes place in late-responding tissues that will remodel or die. This pattern of constitutive and induced D2 expression contributes to the timing of metamorphic changes in these tissues.

PubMed ID: 14729480
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: dio2 h3-3a pomc rxra thra tra tshb
Antibodies: H3f3a Ab9

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