Inhibition of lung fluid clearance and epithelial Na+ channels by chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines.
We investigated the mechanisms by which chlorine (Cl(2)) and its reactive byproducts inhibit Na(+)-dependent alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in vivo and the activity of amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) by measuring AFC in mice exposed to Cl(2) (0-500 ppm for 30 min) and Na(+) and amiloride-sensitive currents (I(Na) and I(amil), respectively) across Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC incubated with HOCl (1-2000 microm). Both Cl(2) and HOCl-derived products decreased AFC in mice and whole cell and single channel I(Na) in a dose-dependent manner; these effects were counteracted by serine proteases. Mass spectrometry analysis of the oocyte recording medium identified organic chloramines formed by the interaction of HOCl with HEPES (used as an extracellular buffer). In addition, chloramines formed by the interaction of HOCl with taurine or glycine decreased I(Na) in a similar fashion. Preincubation of oocytes with serine proteases prevented the decrease of I(Na) by HOCl, whereas perfusion of oocytes with a synthetic 51-mer peptide corresponding to the putative furin and plasmin cleaving segment in the gamma-ENaC subunit restored the ability of HOCl to inhibit I(Na). Finally, I(Na) of oocytes expressing wild type alpha- and gamma-ENaC and a mutant form of beta ENaC (S520K), known to result in ENaC channels locked in the open position, were not altered by HOCl. We concluded that HOCl and its reactive intermediates (such as organic chloramines) inhibit ENaC by affecting channel gating, which could be relieved by proteases cleavage.
PubMed ID: 20106988
PMC ID: PMC2843221
Article link: J Biol Chem.
Grant support: 1U54ES017218 NIEHS NIH HHS , HL-31197 NHLBI NIH HHS , HL-51173 NHLBI NIH HHS , U01ES015676 NIEHS NIH HHS
Genes referenced: furin plg scnn1g