Analysis of transmembrane segment 8 of the GLUT1 glucose transporter by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility.
The GLUT1 glucose transporter has been proposed to form an aqueous substrate translocation pathway via the clustering of several amphipathic transmembrane helices (Mueckler, M., Caruso, C., Baldwin, S. A., Panico, M., Blench, I., Morris, H. R., Allard, W. J., Lienhard, G. E., and Lodish, H. F. (1985) Science 229, 941-945). The possible role of transmembrane helix 8 in the formation of this permeation pathway was investigated using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and the membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl-specific reagent, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (pCMBS). Twenty-one GLUT1 mutants were created from a fully functional cysteine-less parental GLUT1 molecule by successively changing each residue along transmembrane segment 8 to a cysteine. The mutant proteins were then expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and their membrane concentrations, 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities, and sensitivities to pCMBS were determined. Four positions within helix 8, alanine 309, threonine 310, serine 313, and glycine 314, were accessible to pCMBS as judged by the inhibition of transport activity. All four of these residues are clustered along one face of a putative alpha-helix. These results suggest that transmembrane segment 8 of GLUT1 forms part of the sugar permeation pathway. Updated two-dimensional models for the orientation of the 12 transmembrane helices and the conformation of the exofacial glucose binding site of GLUT1 are proposed that are consistent with existing experimental data and homology modeling based on the crystal structures of two bacterial membrane transporters.
PubMed ID: 14688257
Article link: J Biol Chem.
Grant support: DK43695 NIDDK NIH HHS
Genes referenced: slc2a1