XB-ART-42682Mol Endocrinol February 1, 2011; 25 (2): 225-37.
Specific histone lysine 4 methylation patterns define TR-binding capacity and differentiate direct T3 responses.
The diversity of thyroid hormone T(3) effects in vivo makes their molecular analysis particularly challenging. Indeed, the current model of the action of T(3) and its receptors on transcription does not reflect this diversity. Here, T(3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis was exploited to investigate, in an in vivo developmental context, how T(3) directly regulates gene expression. Two, direct positively regulated T(3)-response genes encoding transcription factors were analyzed: thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and TH/bZIP. Reverse transcription-real-time quantitative PCR analysis on Xenopus tropicalis tadpole brain and tail fin showed differences in expression levels in premetamorphic tadpoles (lower for TH/bZIP than for TRβ) and differences in induction after T(3) treatment (lower for TRβ than for TH/bZIP). To dissect the mechanisms underlying these differences, chromatin immunoprecipitation was used. T(3) differentially induced RNA polymerase II and histone tail acetylation as a function of transcriptional level. Gene-specific patterns of TR binding were found on the different T(3) -responsive elements (higher for TRβ than for TH/bZIP), correlated with gene-specific modifications of H3K4 methylation (higher for TRβ than for TH/bZIP). Moreover, tissue-specific modifications of H3K27 were found (lower in brain than in tail fin). This first in vivo analysis of the association of histone modifications and TR binding/gene activation during vertebrate development for any nuclear receptor indicate that chromatin context of thyroid-responsive elements loci controls the capacity to bind TR through variations in histone H3K4 methylation, and that the histone code, notably H3, contributes to the fine tuning of gene expression that underlies complex physiological T(3) responses.
PubMed ID: 21239616
PMC ID: PMC5417309
Article link: Mol Endocrinol
References [+] :
Akkers, A hierarchy of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 acquisition in spatial gene regulation in Xenopus embryos. 2009, Pubmed, Xenbase