Intramolecular proton shuttle supports not only catalytic but also noncatalytic function of carbonic anhydrase II.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze the reversible hydration of CO(2) to HCO(3)(-) and H(+). The rate-limiting step in this reaction is the shuttle of protons between the catalytic center of the enzyme and the bulk solution. In carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), the fastest and most wide-spread isoform, this H(+) shuttle is facilitated by the side chain of His64, whereas CA isoforms such as carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII), which lack such a shuttle, have only low catalytic activity in vitro. By using heterologous protein expression in Xenopus oocytes, we tested the role of this intramolecular H(+) shuttle on CA activity in an intact cell. The data revealed that CAIII, shown in vitro to have ∼1,000-fold reduced activity as compared with CAII, displays significant catalytic activity in the intact cell. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the H(+) shuttle in CAII itself can facilitate transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1/4) independent of catalytic activity. Our results show that His64 is essential for the enhancement of lactate transport via MCT1/4, because a mutation of this residue to alanine (CAII-H64A) abolishes the CAII-induced increase in MCT1/4 activity. However, injection of 4-methylimidazole, which acts as an exogenous H(+) donor/acceptor, can restore the ability of CAII-H64A to enhance transport activity of MCT1/4. These findings support the hypothesis that the H(+) shuttle in CAII not only facilitates CAII catalytic activity but also can enhance activity of acid-/base-transporting proteins such as MCT1/4 in a direct, noncatalytic manner, possibly by acting as an "H(+)-collecting antenna."
PubMed ID: 21282642
PMC ID: PMC3041061
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Genes referenced: ca2 ca3 mcts1