XB-ART-45189Differentiation July 1, 2012; 84 (1): 17-24.
New developments in the second heart field.
During cardiac looping the heart tube elongates by addition of progenitor cells from adjacent pharyngeal mesoderm to the arterial and venous poles. This cell population, termed the second heart field, was first identified ten years ago and many studies in the intervening decade have refined our understanding of how heart tube elongation takes place and identified signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and differentiation during progressive contribution of second heart field cells to the embryonic heart. It has also become apparent that defective second heart field development results in common congenital heart anomalies affecting both the conotruncal region and venous pole of the heart, including atrial and atrioventricular septal defects. In this review we focus on a series of recent papers that have identified new regulators of second heart field development, in particular the retinoic acid signaling pathway and HOX, SIX and EYA transcription factors. We also discuss new findings concerning the regulation of fibroblast growth factor signaling during second heart field deployment and studies that have implicated FGF10 and FGF3 in outflow tract development in addition to FGF8. Second heart field derived parts of the heart share common progenitor cells in pharyngeal mesoderm with craniofacial skeletal muscles and recent findings from xenopus, zebrafish and the protochordate Ciona intestinalis provide insights into the evolution of the second heart field during vertebrate radiation.
PubMed ID: 22521611
Article link: Differentiation
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 eya1 fgf10 fgf3 fgf8 hoxb1 isl1 msx1 msx2 six1 tbx1 tbx2 tbx3