Pore collapse underlies irreversible inactivation of TRPM2 cation channel currents.
The Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a key role in pathogen-evoked phagocyte activation, postischemic neuronal apoptosis, and glucose-evoked insulin secretion, by linking these cellular responses to oxidative stress. TRPM2 channels are coactivated by binding of intracellular ADP ribose and Ca(2+) to distinct cytosolically accessible sites on the channels. These ligands likely regulate the activation gate, conserved in the voltage-gated cation channel superfamily, that comprises a helix bundle formed by the intracellular ends of transmembrane helix six of each subunit. For several K(+) and TRPM family channels, activation gate opening requires the presence of phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) in the inner membrane leaflet. Most TRPM family channels inactivate upon prolonged stimulation in inside-out patches; this "rundown" is due to PIP(2) depletion. TRPM2 currents also run down within minutes, but the molecular mechanism of this process is unknown. Here we report that high-affinity PIP(2) binding regulates Ca(2+) sensitivity of TRPM2 activation. Nevertheless, TRPM2 inactivation is not due to PIP(2) depletion; rather, it is state dependent, sensitive to permeating ions, and can be completely prevented by mutations in the extracellular selectivity filter. Introduction of two negative charges plus a single-residue insertion, to mimic the filter sequence of TRPM5, results in TRPM2 channels that maintain unabated maximal activity for over 1 h, and display altered permeation properties but intact ADP ribose/Ca(2+)-dependent gating. Thus, upon prolonged stimulation, the TRPM2 selectivity filter undergoes a conformational change reminiscent of that accompanying C-type inactivation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. The noninactivating TRPM2 variant will be invaluable for gating studies.
PubMed ID: 22847436
PMC ID: PMC3421201
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Grant support: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Genes referenced: ins trpm2 trpm5