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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A July 31, 2012; 109 (31): 12586-91.

Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left-right patterning is conserved across kingdoms.

Lobikin M , Wang G , Xu J , Hsieh YW , Chuang CF , Lemire JM , Levin M .

Many types of embryos'' bodyplans exhibit consistently oriented laterality of the heart, viscera, and brain. Errors of left-right patterning present an important class of human birth defects, and considerable controversy exists about the nature and evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanisms that allow embryos to reliably orient the left-right axis. Here we show that the same mutations in the cytoskeletal protein tubulin that alter asymmetry in plants also affect very early steps of left-right patterning in nematode and frog embryos, as well as chirality of human cells in culture. In the frog embryo, tubulin α and tubulin γ-associated proteins are required for the differential distribution of maternal proteins to the left or right blastomere at the first cell division. Our data reveal a remarkable molecular conservation of mechanisms initiating left-right asymmetry. The origin of laterality is cytoplasmic, ancient, and highly conserved across kingdoms, a fundamental feature of the cytoskeleton that underlies chirality in cells and multicellular organisms.

PubMed ID: 22802643
PMC ID: PMC3412009
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: aldh6a1 atp5po atp6v1e1 bola2 btf3 cap1 ccdc25 cdt1 cfl1 dpcd eef1a1 eif2s2 gnpda1 golga2 grip1 habp4 hadh hmgb2 hspd1 ifrd2 lsm3 mastl mybpc3 myh6 ncl ndufab1 ndufs4 nodal1 pa2g4 phb plin2 psma3 psmc1 psmc5 psmc6 rab10 rpl12 rpl13a rpl22 rps10 rps13 rps14 rps17 rps18 rps19 rps29 rps7 slc6a5 snrpe timeless tpd52 tpd52l2 tuba4b tubgcp2 tut1
GO keywords: cytoskeleton [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Abe, Microtubule defects and cell morphogenesis in the lefty1lefty2 tubulin mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. 2004, Pubmed