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XB-ART-46223
Int J Biol Sci January 1, 2012; 8 (8): 1217-24.

Thyroid hormone regulation of adult intestinal stem cell development: mechanisms and evolutionary conservations.



Abstract
The adult mammalian intestine has long been used as a model to study adult stem cell function and tissue renewal as the intestinal epithelium is constantly undergoing self-renewal throughout adult life. This is accomplished through the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of the adult stem cells located in the crypt. The development of this self-renewal system is, however, poorly understood. A number of studies suggest that the formation/maturation of the adult intestine is conserved in vertebrates and depends on endogenous thyroid hormone (T3). In amphibians such as Xenopus laevis, the process takes place during metamorphosis, which is totally dependent upon T3 and resembles postembryonic development in mammals when T3 levels are also high. During metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells in the tadpole intestine undergo apoptosis and concurrently, adult epithelial stem/progenitor cells are formed de novo, which subsequently lead to the formation of a trough-crest axis of the epithelial fold in the frog, resembling the crypt-villus axis in the adult mammalian intestine. Here we will review some recent molecular and genetic studies that support the conservation of the development of the adult intestinal stem cells in vertebrates. We will discuss the mechanisms by which T3 regulates this process via its nuclear receptors.

PubMed ID: 23136549
PMC ID: PMC3491429
Article link: Int J Biol Sci
Grant support: [+]
Genes referenced: lgr5 prmt1


Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Amano, Isolation of genes involved in intestinal remodeling during anuran metamorphosis. 1999, Pubmed, Xenbase


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