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Chem Biol Interact February 25, 2013; 202 (1-3): 11-21.

Comparative genomics, molecular evolution and computational modeling of ALDH1B1 and ALDH2.

Jackson BC , Holmes RS , Backos DS , Reigan P , Thompson DC , Vasiliou V .

Vertebrate ALDH2 genes encode mitochondrial enzymes capable of metabolizing acetaldehyde and other biological aldehydes in the body. Mammalian ALDH1B1, another mitochondrial enzyme sharing 72% identity with ALDH2, is also capable of metabolizing acetaldehyde but has a tissue distribution and pattern of activity distinct from that of ALDH2. Bioinformatic analyses of several vertebrate genomes were undertaken using known ALDH2 and ALDH1B1 amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of many representative vertebrate species (including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals) indicated the presence of ALDH1B1 in many mammalian species and in frogs (Xenopus tropicalis); no evidence was found for ALDH1B1 in the genomes of birds, reptiles or fish. Predicted vertebrate ALDH2 and ALDH1B1 subunit sequences and structures were highly conserved, including residues previously shown to be involved in catalysis and coenzyme binding for human ALDH2. Studies of ALDH1B1 sequences supported the hypothesis that the ALDH1B1 gene originated in early vertebrates from a retrotransposition of the vertebrate ALDH2 gene. Given the high degree of similarity between ALDH2 and ALDH1B1, it is surprising that individuals with an inactivating mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2) do not exhibit a compensatory increase in ALDH1B1 activity. We hypothesized that the similarity between the two ALDHs would allow for dominant negative heterotetramerization between the inactive ALDH2 mutants and ALDH1B1. Computational-based molecular modeling studies examining predicted protein-protein interactions indicated that heterotetramerization between ALDH2 and ALDH1B1 subunits was highly probable and may partially explain a lack of compensation by ALDH1B1 in ALDH2(∗)2 individuals.

PubMed ID: 23247008
PMC ID: PMC3687035
Article link: Chem Biol Interact
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: aldh1b1 aldh2

References [+] :
Chang, Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding mouse mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. 1994, Pubmed