XB-ART-49496Purinergic Signal March 1, 2015; 11 (1): 59-77.
Comparative genomic and expression analysis of the adenosine signaling pathway members in Xenopus.
Adenosine is an endogenous molecule that regulates many physiological processes via the activation of four specific G-protein-coupled ADORA receptors. Extracellular adenosine may originate either from the hydrolysis of released ATP by the ectonucleotidases or from cellular exit via the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (SLC29A). Adenosine extracellular concentration is also regulated by its successive hydrolysis into uric acid by membrane-bound enzymes or by cell influx via the concentrative nucleoside transporters (SLC28A). All of these members constitute the adenosine signaling pathway and regulate adenosine functions. Although the roles of this pathway are quite well understood in adults, little is known regarding its functions during vertebrate embryogenesis. We have used Xenopus laevis as a model system to provide a comparative expression map of the different members of this pathway during vertebrate development. We report the characterization of the different enzymes, receptors, and nucleoside transporters in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis, and we demonstrate by phylogenetic analyses the high level of conservation of these members between amphibians and mammals. A thorough expression analysis of these members during development and in the adult frog reveals that each member displays distinct specific expression patterns. These data suggest potentially different developmental roles for these proteins and therefore for extracellular adenosine. In addition, we show that adenosine levels during amphibian embryogenesis are very low, confirming that they must be tightly controlled for normal development.
PubMed ID: 25319637
PMC ID: PMC4336307
Article link: Purinergic Signal
References [+] :
Abbracchio, Purinergic signalling: pathophysiological roles. 1999, Pubmed