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Immunol Rev September 1, 2015; 267 (1): 6-15.
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Coevolution of MHC genes (LMP/TAP/class Ia, NKT-class Ib, NKp30-B7H6): lessons from cold-blooded vertebrates.

Ohta Y , Flajnik MF .

Comparative immunology provides the long view of what is conserved across all vertebrate taxa versus what is specific to particular organisms or group of organisms. Regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and coevolution, three striking cases have been revealed in cold-blooded vertebrates: lineages of class Ia antigen-processing and -presenting genes, evolutionary conservation of NKT-class Ib recognition, and the ancient emergence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 and its ligand B7H6. While coevolution of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and class Ia has been documented in endothermic birds and two mammals, lineages of LMP7 are restricted to ectotherms. The unambiguous discovery of natural killer T (NKT) cells in Xenopus demonstrated that NKT cells are not restricted to mammals and are likely to have emerged at the same time in evolution as classical α/β and γ/δ T cells. NK cell receptors evolve at a rapid rate, and orthologues are nearly impossible to identify in different vertebrate classes. By contrast, we have detected NKp30 in all gnathostomes, except in species where it was lost. The recently discovered ligand of NKp30, B7H6, shows strong signs of coevolution with NKp30 throughout evolution, i.e. coincident loss or expansion of both genes in some species. NKp30 also offers an attractive IgSF candidate for the invasion of the RAG transposon, which is believed to have initiated T-cell receptor/immunoglobulin adaptive immunity. Besides reviewing these intriguing features of MHC evolution and coevolution, we offer suggestions for future studies and propose a model for the primordial or proto MHC.

PubMed ID: 26284468
PMC ID: PMC4594805
Article link: Immunol Rev
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: mhc1a mhc2a myh4 myh6 psmb11 psmb8 psmb9 slc22a6 tap1 tap2 tnfrsf10b

References [+] :
Abi-Rached, Evidence of en bloc duplication in vertebrate genomes. 2002, Pubmed