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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol January 1, 2009; 25 221-51.

Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation.

The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and to all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms, including frog, fish, chick, and mouse, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models.

PubMed ID: 19575677
PMC ID: PMC2861293
Article link: Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

References [+] :
Alexander, A molecular pathway leading to endoderm formation in zebrafish. 1999, Pubmed