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XB-ART-52955
Dev Biol. June 15, 2017; 426 (2): 270-290.

High variability of expression profiles of homeologous genes for Wnt, Hh, Notch, and Hippo signaling pathways in Xenopus laevis.

Michiue T , Yamamoto T , Yasuoka Y , Goto T , Ikeda T , Nagura K , Nakayama T , Taira M , Kinoshita T .


Abstract
Cell signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch, and Hippo, are essential for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. In this study, we analyzed 415 genes involved in these pathways in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. Most genes are retained in two subgenomes called L and S (193 homeologous gene pairs and 29 singletons). This conservation rate of homeologs is much higher than that of all genes in the X. laevis genome (86.9% vs 60.2%). Among singletons, 24 genes are retained in the L subgenome, a rate similar to the average for all genes (82.8% vs 74.6%). In addition, as general components of signal transduction, we also analyzed 32 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-related genes and eight TLE/Groucho transcriptional corepressors-related genes. In these gene sets, all homeologous pairs have been retained. Transcriptome analysis using RNA-seq data from developmental stages and adult tissues demonstrated that most homeologous pairs of signaling components have variable expression patterns, in contrast to the conservative expression profiles of homeologs for transcription factors. Our results indicate that homeologous gene pairs for cell signaling regulation have tended to become subfunctionalized after allotetraploidization. Diversification of signaling pathways by subfunctionalization of homeologs may enhance environmental adaptability. These results provide insights into the evolution of signaling pathways after polyploidization.

PubMed ID: 28089430
Article link: Dev Biol.

Genes referenced: acap1 acot8 acta1 adam17 aes amph ap5s1 apcdd1 arl13b armc5 arnt arr3 aspm asxl1 awat1 axin2 bix1.1 bix1.2 ccdc88c cebpz cer1 ckap2 crb1 crebbp csnk1a1 csnk1d csnk2a1 csnk2b ctnnb1 ctnnbip1 ctsa cxxc4 dennd1b dgat2l6 dhh dkk3 dkkx dlc dll4 dtx2 dtx4 dus1l dvl1 dvl2 dvl3 eda efnb1 faim fam102b fam155b fkbp14 foxj1 frat1 frzb2 fstl4 ggps1 gli1 gli2 gli3 gnrhr2 gpc1 gpc2 gpc4 gps1 gps2 gsk3a gypc heca hey2 hhip ihh inppl1 jag1 kdm2a kif3b kif7 lad1 lats1 lats2 lef1 lgr4 lhfpl6 limd1 lrrc32.1 lrrc32.2 maml1 max mob1a mss51 mtg1 ndp ndst1 ndst2 ndst3 ndst4 nedd4l neurl2 neurl4 nodal3.1 nodal3.2 nodal5 notch1 notum numbl p2ry4 paox parp9 patl1 pex11a plin1 pltp pofut1 polg porcn pou6f2 ppp2ca prkaca prr14 ptch1 ptch2 pus3 pwwp2a rassf4 rfng rhoc rhog rnf20 rnf43 rspo2 rspo3 ryk sdc2 sdc4 sept7 sfrp1 sfrp4 sfrp5 sfrpx sgk1 shh shisa1.1 shisa1.2 shisa2 shisa4 sipa1l2 skp1 slc23a1 slc5a2 smo snrpd1 snx21 sostdc1 sox17b.1 sox17b.2 stk3 stk36 stk4 sufu sulf1 sulf2 tab2 tcf7 tcf7l1 tcf7l2 tle1 tle2 tle4 tmem246 tmem72 tp53 trabd2a ube2b uvrag vdac1 velo1 ventx1.1 ventx1.2 wdr93 wls wnt11 wnt11b wnt2b wnt8a wnt8b yap1 zbtb41 zfp91 znf329 znrf3 zswim1 zswim3



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