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Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. January 1, 2018; 7 (1):

Models of convergent extension during morphogenesis.

Shindo A .

Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental and conserved collective cell movement that forms elongated tissues during embryonic development. Thus far, studies have demonstrated two different mechanistic models of collective cell movements during CE. The first, termed the crawling mode, was discovered in the process of notochord formation in Xenopus laevis embryos, and has been the established model of CE for decades. The second model, known as the contraction mode, was originally reported in studies of germband extension in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and was recently demonstrated to be a conserved mechanism of CE among tissues and stages of development across species. This review summarizes the two modes of CE by focusing on the differences in cytoskeletal behaviors and relative expression of cell adhesion molecules. The upstream molecules regulating these machineries are also discussed. There are abundant studies of notochord formation in X. laevis embryos, as this was one of the pioneering model systems in this field. Therefore, the present review discusses these findings as an approach to the fundamental biological question of collective cell regulation. WIREs Dev Biol 2018, 7:e293. doi: 10.1002/wdev.293 This article is categorized under: Early Embryonic Development > Gastrulation and Neurulation Comparative Development and Evolution > Model Systems.

PubMed ID: 28906063
PMC ID: PMC5763355
Article link: Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol.

Genes referenced: celsr1 fzd1 rac1 rock1 vangl1

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Amano, 1996, Pubmed [+]

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