A novel rhodopsin phosphodiesterase from Salpingoeca rosetta shows light-enhanced substrate affinity.
It is since many years textbook knowledge that the concentration of the second messenger cGMP is regulated in animal rod and cone cells by type II rhodopsins via a G-protein signaling cascade. Microbial rhodopsins with enzymatic activity for regulation of cGMP concentration were only recently discovered: in 2014 light-activated guanylyl-cyclase opsins in fungi and in 2017 a novel rhodopsin phosphodiesterase (RhoPDE) in the protist Salpingoeca rosetta (SrRhoPDE). The light regulation of SrRhoPDE, however, seemed very weak or absent. Here, we present strong evidence for light regulation by studying SrRhoPDE, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, at different substrate concentrations. Hydrolysis of cGMP shows an ∼100-fold higher turnover than that of cAMP. Light causes a strong decrease in the Km value for cGMP from 80 to 13 µM but increases the maximum turnover only by ∼30%. The PDE activity for cAMP is similarly enhanced by light at low substrate concentrations. Illumination does not affect the cGMP degradation of Lys296 mutants that are not able to form a covalent bond of Schiff base type to the chromophore retinal. We demonstrate that SrRhoPDE shows cytosolic N- and C-termini, most likely via an eight-transmembrane helix structure. SrRhoPDE is a new optogenetic tool for light-regulated cGMP manipulation which might be further improved by genetic engineering.
PubMed ID: 29483295
Article link: Biochem J