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PeerJ January 1, 2018; 6 e4516.

The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs.

Fan Y , Yue X , Xue F , Brauth SE , Tang Y , Fang G .

Background: Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods: An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222) for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus) and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) and permutation entropy (PE). Results: Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus). ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion: ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

PubMed ID: 29576980
PMC ID: PMC5857353
Article link: PeerJ

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References [+] :
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