Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Xenbase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari.
Nature January 1, 2018; 557 (7706): 564-569.

RSPO2 inhibition of RNF43 and ZNRF3 governs limb development independently of LGR4/5/6.

Szenker-Ravi E , Altunoglu U , Leushacke M , Bosso-Lefèvre C , Khatoo M , Thi Tran H , Naert T , Noelanders R , Hajamohideen A , Beneteau C , de Sousa SB , Karaman B , Latypova X , Başaran S , Yücel EB , Tan TT , Vlaminck L , Nayak SS , Shukla A , Girisha KM , Le Caignec C , Soshnikova N , Uyguner ZO , Vleminckx K , Barker N , Kayserili H , Reversade B .

The four R-spondin secreted ligands (RSPO1-RSPO4) act via their cognate LGR4, LGR5 and LGR6 receptors to amplify WNT signalling1-3. Here we report an allelic series of recessive RSPO2 mutations in humans that cause tetra-amelia syndrome, which is characterized by lung aplasia and a total absence of the four limbs. Functional studies revealed impaired binding to the LGR4/5/6 receptors and the RNF43 and ZNRF3 transmembrane ligases, and reduced WNT potentiation, which correlated with allele severity. Unexpectedly, however, the triple and ubiquitous knockout of Lgr4, Lgr5 and Lgr6 in mice did not recapitulate the known Rspo2 or Rspo3 loss-of-function phenotypes. Moreover, endogenous depletion or addition of exogenous RSPO2 or RSPO3 in triple-knockout Lgr4/5/6 cells could still affect WNT responsiveness. Instead, we found that the concurrent deletion of rnf43 and znrf3 in Xenopus embryos was sufficient to trigger the outgrowth of supernumerary limbs. Our results establish that RSPO2, without the LGR4/5/6 receptors, serves as a direct antagonistic ligand to RNF43 and ZNRF3, which together constitute a master switch that governs limb specification. These findings have direct implications for regenerative medicine and WNT-associated cancers.

PubMed ID: 29769720
Article link: Nature

Genes referenced: lgr4 lgr5 rnf43 rspo1 rspo2 rspo3 znrf3
GO keywords: Wnt signaling pathway [+]

Disease Ontology terms: bone development disease [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Lehoczky, Rethinking WNT signalling. 2018, Pubmed

Xenbase: The Xenopus Model Organism Knowledgebase.
Version: 4.15.0
Major funding for Xenbase is provided by grant P41 HD064556