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Mol Pharmacol January 1, 2019; 95 (1): 82-96.

A Modified Tripeptide Motif of RS1 (RSC1A1) Down-Regulates Exocytotic Pathways of Human Na+-d-glucose Cotransporters SGLT1, SGLT2, and Glucose Sensor SGLT3 in the Presence of Glucose.

Schäfer N , Rikkala PR , Veyhl-Wichmann M , Keller T , Jurowich CF , Geiger D , Koepsell H .

A domain of protein RS1 (RSC1A1) called RS1-Reg down-regulates the plasma membrane abundance of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 by blocking the exocytotic pathway at the trans-Golgi. This effect is blunted by intracellular glucose but prevails when serine in a QSP (Gln-Ser-Pro) motif is replaced by glutamate [RS1-Reg(S20E)]. RS1-Reg binds to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and inhibits ODC in a glucose-dependent manner. Because the ODC inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) acts like RS1-Reg(S20E), and DFMO and RS1-Reg(S20E) are not cumulative, we raised the hypothesis that RS1-Reg(S20E) down-regulates the exocytotic pathway of SGLT1 at the trans-Golgi by inhibiting ODC. We investigated whether QEP down-regulates human SGLT1 (hSGLT1) like hRS1-Reg(S20E) and whether human Na+-d-glucose cotransporter hSGLT2 and the human glucose sensor hSGLT3 are also addressed. We expressed hSGLT1, hSGLT1 linked to yellow fluorescent protein (hSGLT1-YFP), hSGLT2-YFP and hSGLT3-YFP in oocytes of Xenopus laevis, injected hRS1-Reg(S20E), QEP, DFMO, and/or α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (AMG), and measured AMG uptake, glucose-induced currents, and plasma membrane-associated fluorescence after 1 hour. We also performed in vitro AMG uptake measurements into small intestinal mucosa of mice and human. The data indicate that QEP down-regulates the exocytotic pathway of SGLT1 similar to hRS1-Reg(S20E). Our results suggests that both peptides also down-regulate hSGLT2 and hSGLT3 via the same pathway. Thirty minutes after application of 5 mM QEP in the presence of 5 mM d-glucose, hSGLT1-mediated AMG uptake into small intestinal mucosa was decreased by 40% to 50%. Thus oral application of QEP in a formulation that optimizes uptake into enterocytes but prevents entry into the blood is proposed as novel antidiabetic therapy.

PubMed ID: 30355744
Article link: Mol Pharmacol

Genes referenced: amelx odc1 rs1 rsc1a1 slc5a1.2

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