XB-ART-55489Dev Comp Immunol January 1, 2019; 92 140-149.
Class A scavenger receptors mediate extracellular dsRNA sensing, leading to downstream antiviral gene expression in a novel American toad cell line, BufoTad.
Viral double-stranded (ds)RNA is a potent pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), capable of inducing a strong antiviral state within the cell, protecting the cell from virus infection. In mammals and fish, sensing extracellular dsRNA is mediated by cell-surface class A scavenger receptors (SR-As). Currently, very little is known about SR-As in amphibians, including: sequence, expression patterns and function. To this end, SR-A expression and function was studied in a novel American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) tadpole cell line called BufoTad. BufoTad was derived from a whole tadpole. The cell line exhibits a cobblestone morphology and expresses abundant levels of transcripts for cytokeratin 19, vimentin, claudin 3, chemokine receptor CXCR4, and SR-AI, one of the five members of the SR-A family, collectively suggesting that BufoTad could be endothelial-like. BufoTad cells bound acetylated LDL, whereas the Xenopus laevis kidney epithelial A6 cell line did not, suggesting functional SR-A activity in BufoTad cells. Additionally, three SR-A competitive ligands (DxSO4, fucoidan, poly inosine (pI)) completely blocked AcLDL binding in BufoTad cells, whereas their three corresponding non-competitive ligands (ChSO4, fetuin, poly cytosine (pC)) did not. A commercial dsRNA, poly IC, induced robust expression of an Mx-like gene transcript, a possible antiviral protein in BufoTad cells. Employing the same SR-A ligand blocking assay used for AcLDL blocked dsRNA-induced ISG expression. This study is the first demonstration that amphibian SR-As have functional ligand binding activities in a live biological cellular model and that sensing extracellular dsRNA in amphibian cells leads to antiviral gene expression that is mediated by class A scavenger receptors.
PubMed ID: 30452932
Article link: Dev Comp Immunol
Genes referenced: colec12 cxcr4 krt12.4 scara3 scara5 vim