XB-ART-55684Toxicol Mech Methods July 1, 2019; 29 (6): 421-427.
Comparison the sensitivity of amphibian metamorphosis assays with NF 48 stage and NF 51 stage Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
The amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) was proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to screen thyroid disruptors of vertebrate species. The general experimental design of the AMA exposes Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles to test chemical concentrations for 21 d. However, recent studies demonstrated that thyroid gland began to function after NF stage 45 in X. laevis. Thus, in this study, we initiated exposure with NF stage 48 tadpoles when the thyroid gland is still in a preliminary development period, to compare the sensitivity of the AMA with NF 48 stage and NF 51 stage tadpoles. Further, the application and sensitivity of the optimized AMA were evaluated and validated by two known thyroid toxicants methimazole (MMI) and sodium perchlorate (SP). The observational endpoints are developmental stage, hind limb length (HLL), snout-vent length (SVL), wet weight, and daily observations of mortality. The results were as follows. Although the sensitivity to endpoint of growth, such as wet weight and SVL was similar between the two assays, our optimized AMA detected delaying effects of 1 mg/L MMI and 32 μg/L SP on metamorphosis development both on day 7 and at test termination, which were lower than those in AMA. Additionally, it is easier to get a large number of animals at NF stage 48 than NF stage 51 in a short time. Thus, it is suggested that the NF stage 48 tadpoles might be applied to the AMA for efficiently screening the thyroid-active substances.
PubMed ID: 30732517
Article link: Toxicol Mech Methods