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Cell Rep January 1, 2019; 26 (8): 2088-2100.e4.

Decoupling the Roles of Cell Shape and Mechanical Stress in Orienting and Cueing Epithelial Mitosis.

Nestor-Bergmann A , Stooke-Vaughan GA , Goddard GK , Starborg T , Jensen OE , Woolner S .

Distinct mechanisms involving cell shape and mechanical force are known to influence the rate and orientation of division in cultured cells. However, uncoupling the impact of shape and force in tissues remains challenging. Combining stretching of Xenopus tissue with mathematical methods of inferring relative mechanical stress, we find separate roles for cell shape and mechanical stress in orienting and cueing division. We demonstrate that division orientation is best predicted by an axis of cell shape defined by the position of tricellular junctions (TCJs), which align with local cell stress rather than tissue-level stress. The alignment of division to cell shape requires functional cadherin and the localization of the spindle orientation protein, LGN, to TCJs but is not sensitive to relative cell stress magnitude. In contrast, proliferation rate is more directly regulated by mechanical stress, being correlated with relative isotropic stress and decoupled from cell shape when myosin II is depleted.

PubMed ID: 30784591
PMC ID: PMC6381790
Article link: Cell Rep
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ctnnb1 fn1 gpsm2 myc myh10 vcl
Morpholinos: myh10 MO1 vcl MO1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Benham-Pyle, Cell adhesion. Mechanical strain induces E-cadherin-dependent Yap1 and β-catenin activation to drive cell cycle entry. 2015, Pubmed