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J Appl Toxicol January 1, 2019; 39 (7): 1030-1042.

A microarray-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in thyroid glands in amphibian metamorphosis: differences in effects between chemical exposure and food restriction.

Ose K , Yamada F , Ohara A , Suzuki N , Fukuda T , Miyamoto M , Sumida K .

Tadpoles during metamorphosis are sensitive to chemical exposure as shown in the amphibian metamorphosis assay, which is a method to detect effects of chemicals on the functions of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. The present study reports existence of different modes of action between pyriproxyfen (PYR) and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) under different feeding conditions based on gene expression profiles (transcriptomics) in the thyroid glands of tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PTU and PYR were exposed to the tadpoles during metamorphosis under normal (fed groups, both of PTU and PRY) and restricted feeding (fasted groups, PTU only) conditions; and effects were compared to control groups. Delayed development based on decreased Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stage number without any histopathological changes was observed in the control of restricted feeding (control-fasted) group, and the PYR group with reduced food consumption. Clear developmental retardation with typical thyroid histopathological changes was observed in the PTU groups. To find clusters of all samples based on their similarity of expression patterns, hierarchical clustering analysis using selected gene probes was conducted. It revealed gene profiles from samples of the PYR group were quite similar to those of the control-fasted group, followed by the control group with normal feeding (control-fed). The results suggest that key events in the thyroid glands of tadpoles induced by PYR should be quite similar to those of control-fasted, and quite different from those of the PTU groups. Our findings demonstrated the usefulness of transcriptomics, which enabled recognition of the different modes of actions.

PubMed ID: 30883854
Article link: J Appl Toxicol